Somaliland Cyberspace

Human Rights Conditions in Somalia/Somaliland Region (Since 1992)

  1. Human Rights Centre- Somaliland Annual Human Rights Reports: 2017 - 2016 - 2015
  2. HRW.Shuttering Social Media During Somaliland's Elections (November 10, 2017)
  3. HRW.Somalia Attack a Wake-Up Call to the West (October 23, 2017)
  4. HRW.UN Rights Mechanism Needed to Document Violations and Provide Accountability in Somalia (September 27, 2017)
  5. HRW.Somalia: Al-Shabab Forces Burn Villages (July 26, 2017).
  6. HRW.Human Rights Priorities for Somalia's New Government (HRW). (MAY 2, 2017)
  7. HRW.Media Freedom Under Attack in Somalia (Oct 10, 2016)
  8. HRW. Chained and Locked Up in Somaliland-Video (October 25, 2015)
  9. HRW.HRW. "Here, Rape is Normal": A Five-Point Plan to Curtail Sexual Violence in Somalia (2014)
  10. HRW.HRW. "Q&A: What it's Like Researching Rape in Somalia" (2014)
  11. Freedom House Somaliland reports: 2017 - 2016 - 2015 - 2014 - 2013 - 2012 - 2011 - 2010 - 2009
  12. Freedom House Somalia reports: 2017 - 2016 - 2015 - 2014 - 2013 - 2012 - 2011 - 2010 - 2009 - 2008 - 2007

  13. U.S. Justice Dept. [PDF]Freedom in the World 2016 - Somaliland - US Department of Justice
  14. U.S. Justice Dept.Somalia: Treatment of Religious Minorities (2016)
  15. U.S. Justice Dept. [PDF] Somalia [Somaliland] Citizenship Law (2013)
  16. U.S. Justice Dept. Democratisation and its Discontents. ICG Africa Report No.66, 28 July 2003
  17. U.S. Justice Dept. [PDF] Constitution of Somaliland (Approved by referendum on 31 May 2001)

  18. United Kingdom: Human Rights and Democracy Report -Somalia: 2016 - 2015 - 2014 - 2013 - 2012 - 2011 - 2010- 2004

  19. Amnesty International Somalia Reports: 2016 - 2015 - 2014 - 2013 - 2012 - 2011 - 2010 - 2009 - 2008 - 2007 - 2006 - 2005 - 2004 - 2003 - 2002 - 2001 - 2000

  20. Reports of the UN Independent Expert on the situation of human rights in Somalia:
    (06 Sep 2017) (15/09/2016) - (4 May 2016) - (04/09/2014) - (16 August 2013) - (30/08/2013) - (24/09/2012) - (29/08/2011) - (16 September 2010) - (23 March 2010) (2004) - (1998) - (1997) - (1996) - (1995) - (1993)

  21. Human rights in Somalia -Wikipedia.
  22. The Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights -Somalia Homepage

  23. HRW. "World Human Rights Report - Somalia" -
    2017 - 2016 - 2015 - 2014 - 2013 - 2012 - 2011 - 2010 - 2009 -

  24. U.S. "Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Somalia"
    2017 - 2016 - 2015 - 2014 - 2013 - 2012 - 2011 - 2010 - 2009 - 2008 - 2007 - 2006 - 2005

  25. Somalia Human rights news-Board index:2009-
  26. Selected Security Council Resolutions on Somalia
  27. Democracy, Human Rights and Governance-Somalia - U.S. Aid Agency (Oct 26, 2016)
  28. Protection of civilians should be central to Somali government's state-building efforts Sept 28, 2016 Statements
  29. Reports of the Secretary-General on Somalia:
    05 Sep 2017 - 09 May 2017 - 09 Jan 2017 - 22 December 2016) - 6 September 2016 - 9 MAY 2016 - 8 JANUARY 2016 - 12 MAY 2015 - 3 MARCH 2014 - 31 MAY 2013 - 22 October 2012 - 22 August 2012 - 1 May 2012 - 31 January 2012 - 9 December 2011 - 25 October 2011 - 30 August 2011 15 June 2011 - 28 April 2011 - 30 December 2010 9 November 2010 - 27 October 2010 - 9 September 2010 - 11 May 2010 - 2 October 2009 - 21 July 2009 - 16 March 2009 - 9 March 2009 - 16 July 2008 - 14 March 2008 - 7 November 2007 - 25 June 2007 - 20 April 2007 - 28 February 2007 - 23 October 2006 - 20 June 2006 - 21 February 2006 - 11 October 2005 - 16 June 2005 - 18 February 2005

  30. UN Human Rights Council. Assistance to Somalia in the field of human rights
    : 6 October 2016- 27 Sept. 2013 - 6 July 2013 - 25 Oct 2013 - 1998 - 1995
  31. HRW. Somalia: Journalists Under Attack News Release. MAY 3, 2016
  32. The Constitution of Somaliland: The Problem of Constitutional Generations and Clan Dissolution by Mario I. Aguilar. Sociology Mind, 5, 245-254.2015.
  33. Research into a Harmonised Legal System for Somalia and Analysis of its Different Judicial Systems by Aline Wauters. 2012-2013.
  34. Somalia/Somaliland - East and Horn of Africa Human Rights March 2016. defenddefenders.org.
  35. Somalia: Persistent violations of children's rights | CRIN Child Rights International Network. (2016)
  36. 2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Somalia
  37. "Chained Like Prisoners": Abuses Against People with Psychosocial Disabilities in Somaliland OCT 25, 2015 Video
  38. Civil Rights Defenders - Human Rights in Somalia 22 June 2015
  39. Rape, impunity and human rights violations in Somalia (Sep 10, 2015)
  40. Human Rights Violations by Peacekeeping Forces in Somalia (2014)
  41. The Need for Action on Violence Towards Women in Somalia-Human Rights Brief (MARCH 18TH, 2014)
  42. Interventionism and Human Rights in Somalia (2014)
  43. FCO-UK. "Somalia - Country of Concern" (10 April 2014)
  44. USDS. "Country Reports on Terrorism 2013 - Somalia" (30 April 2014)
  45. CPJ. "Somaliland authorities shut down independent papers" (April 8, 2014)
  46. Article 19. "Somaliland: Newspaper raided and shut down following corruption article" (11 April 2014)
  47. The Chained Constitution: The Occurrences of Human Rights Violations in Somaliland [pdf] (December 15, 2013)
  48. Amnesty. "Somalia: Human Rights Agenda for the Post-Transition Somali Government" (25 April 2013)
  49. Amnesty. "Somalia: No place like home: Returns and relocations of Somalia's displaced"
  50. CPJ. "52 Journalists Killed in Somalia since 1992/Motive Confirmed" (2013)
  51. PHR Experts Urge Somalia's President to Halt Use of Discredited Medical Test (February 2013)
  52. PHR. Somalia's President Should Void Court Sentences Based on Bad Evidence and Biased Attitudes (February 2013)
  53. OHCHR. UN expert urges Somalia's Government to finalise and implement human rights roadmap (2013)
  54. Danish Immigration Service. "Security and human rights issues in South-Central Somalia, including Mogadishu" (April 2012)
  55. OHCHR. Somalia: UN expert hails Human Rights Roadmap, but calls on Government for broader consultation (2013)
  56. HRW. "Harsh War, Harsh Peace: Abuses by al-Shabaab, the Transitional Federal Government, and AMISOM in Somalia" (2010)
  57. HRW. "Somaliland: Fragile Democracy Under Threat: Electoral Crisis Underscores Broader Human Rights Concerns" (2009)
  58. HRW. "Hostages to Peace": Threats to Human Rights and Democracy in Somaliland (2009)
  59. HRW. "The Human Rights Crisis in Somalia: The "Arria formula" meeting on Somalia" (2008)
  60. OHCHR. "Report of the OHCHR Preliminary Assessment Mission to Somalia" (PDF) (2008)
  61. Amnesty."Situation of human rights in Somalia"
  62. Letter from the Permanent Mission of Somalia (2007) -
  63. Note by the Secretariat on the report of the independent expert appointed by the SG on the situation of human rights in Somalia (2007) -
  64. UN. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (English)
  65. Conditions in Hargeisa central prison (2005)
  66. US. Somalia: Country Reports on Human Rights Practices (2005)
  67. Girl jailed for espionage released in Somaliland(2005)
  68. Status and (Human Rights) Obligations of Non-recognized De Facto Regimes in International Law: The Case of 'Somaliland.' (2005)
  69. Report on Human Rights Familiarisation Tour to Somaliland(2005)
  70. Somaliland: Shadows of the Past As Human Rights Deteriorate 2003
  71. AI. "Somalia and Somaliland: Supporting and strengthening the work of Somali human rights defenders - a workshop report" (June 30, 2003)
  72. Amnesty. "Awareness and action. Summary of Report of workshop November 30, 1999
  73. Forensic report: preliminary assessment of mass graves in the vicinity of Hargeisa, Somalia (1998)
  74. UN. Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Somali)
  75. News Articles on arrests of journalists and press closures and International Appeals
  76. U.S. "Somaliland in Somalia Country Report on Human Rights Practices for 1998"
  77. U.S. "Somalia Country Report on Human Rights Practices for 1998"
  78. Amnesty International. "Somaliland leader says he supports human rights" (1998)
  79. Amnesty International. "Amnesty visits Somaliland to run human rights workshop"
  80. "Women and children are subjected to abuse and discrimination... " (1998)
  81. UNHCR. U.S."Women face a number of serious obstacles to freedom in Somalia... " '96
  82. UNHCR. "Mass Graves in Somaliland" (1997)
  83. UNHCHR. "Preliminary UN assessment of mass graves in the vicinity of Hargeisa" (1997)
  84. Simmone. Mass Graves Leave A Corner of Somalia Appealing for Justice". LA Times
  85. Maneker. "Shaky Peace Lets Northern Somalia Grow Without International Aid.
  86. Manekar. "Survivors Seek Justice in Somalia".
  87. UNHCR. "Press Freedom Somaliland" (1997)
  88. UNHCR. Forensic report: Preliminary assessment of mass graves in the vicinity of Hargeisa, Somalia " (1997)
  89. UNHCR. U.S. "Women face a number of serious obstacles to freedom in Somalia, " (1997)
  90. Amnesty International. "Global Report on Somali Women's Human Rights" Apr.'96
  91. Amnesty International. "Somalia Faces the Future: Human Rights in a Fragmented Society"
  92. UNSC. "UN Security Council resolutions on Somalia" (1992)
  93. Michael van Notten. The Law of the Somalis. A Stable Foundation for Economic Development In the Horn of Africa.
  94. Amnesty International. "Somalia Beyond the Warlords: The Need for a Verdict on Human Rights Abuses" (MARCH 1, 1993)
  95. Amnesty International. "No Mercy in Mogadishu - The Human Cost of the Conflict and the Struggle for Relief" (MARCH 26, 1992)

    Promoting Free Expression

    "Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers". -- Article 19. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

    1. International press freedom Declarations
    2. Canadian Journalists for Free Expression An advocacy organization that defends the rights of journalists and contributes to the development of media freedom worldwide.
    3. The Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) An advocacy organization that draws public attention to abuses against members of the press.
    4. International Federation of Journalists An organization that promotes international action to defend press freedom and social justice through international trade unions for journalists.
    5. International Freedom of Expression Exchange (IFEX) A coming together of International Freedom of Expression organizations to spotlight and combat abuses of press freedom.
    6. The Media Foundation for West Africa (MFWA) A regional non-governmental organization based in Accra which defends and promotes media freedom in West Africa
    7. Reporters without Borders/Reporteurs Sans Frontiers (RSF) - An association that spotlights abuses faced by journalists around the world.


    Pan African Documents

    1. "Draft Additional Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights " (1990)
    2. "African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child" (1990)
    3. "African [Banjul] Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights"(Oct. 21,1986)
    4. "Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa" (1974)
    5. OAU."Charter of Organization of Africa" (May 1963)


    United Nations Documents

    1. "The United Nations Charter"
    2. "Convention on the Rights of the Child"(1990)
    3. "ILO Declaration on fundamental principles and rights at work "(1998)
    4. "International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights"(1976)
    5. "Convention on the Political Rights of Women"
    6. "Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel...Punishment" (1985)
    7. "Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women" (1981)
    8. "Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion" (1981)
    9. "International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights" (1976)
    10. "Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed Conflict"(1974)
    11. "Declaration on Social Progress and Development"(1969)
    12. "International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination"(1969)
    13. "Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons" (1960)
    14. "Convention against Discrimination in Education" (1960)
    15. "Convention relating to the Status of Refugees" (1951)
    16. "Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide" (1951)
    17. "Convention Concerning The ...Right to Organise and to Bargain Collectively" (1949)
    18. "Universal Declaration of Human Rights"(1948)


    United States Documents

    1. M.L. KING'S "I HAVE A DREAM" Speech - Aug. 28, 1963
    2. "The Original BILL OF RIGHTS of the United States" (1791)
    3. "Declaration of Independence in U.S. Congress" (July 4, 1776)
    4. "Consitution of the United States" (1776)


    Great Britain

    1. "The Magna Carta" (The Great Charter)
    2. "Laws of William The Conqueror (1060)


    Europe

    1. "European Convention for Human Rights"
    2. "Declaration of The Rights of Man And of The Citizen" (1789)

    Women's Rights

    1. "Convention on the Political Rights of Women"
    2. "Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women" (1981)
    3. "Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed Conflict" (1974)

    Children's Rights

    1. "Convention on the Rights of the Child"(1990)
    2. "African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child" (1990)

    Freedom Of Religion

    1. "Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion" (1981)

    FGM

    1. "In Re Kasinga: Asylum Hearing of Potential FGM Victim " (1969)

    Civil Liberties

    1. "Universal Declaration of Human Rights"(1948)
    2. "International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights"(1976)
    3. "International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights" (1976)
    4. "African [Banjul] Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights"(Oct. 21,1986)
    5. "Declaration on Social Progress and Development"(1969)
    6. "Draft Additional Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights " (1990)

    Refugee Rights

    1. "Convention relating to the Status of Refugees" (1951)
    2. "Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa " (1974)
    3. "Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons" (1960)

    Humanitarian Law and Statelessness

    1. ICRC. "Armed conflicts linked to the disintegration of State structures " (1989)


    General Links

    1. AI. "Ten Ways to Repress a Journalist" (May 3, 2013)
    2. CPJ page on Somalia/Somaliland
    3. Millennium Development Goals and Human Rights
    4. Lifting the Spirit: Human Rights and Freedom of Religion or Belief
    5. Training Manual on Human rights Monitoring
    6. Freedom of Thought, Conscience, Religion, Opinion, Expression, Association and Assembly
    7. The Human Rights Education Handbook: Effective Practices for Learning, Action, & Change
    8. Freedom of Opinion and Expression. Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression
    9. OHCHR. The Right to Development as a Human Right
      We, heads of State and Government,... are committed to making the right to development a reality for everyone and to freeing the entire human race from want." UN Millennium Declaration
    10. UN. Declaration on the Right to Development (1986)

    International Human Rights conventions

    1. The Ten Core International Human Rights conventions


    This file was set up in 1992.